This text stresses normal operating systems and their electronic characteristics. In this way, troubleshooting should be easier to understand because students then see all other readings and measurements as not being normal. The text uses a "symptom analysis" approach. By using this approach, there is a direct correlation between the cause of the problem and the process needed to correct the problem. Sample "malfunctions" are included. The text places a strong emphasis on communication topics and digital concepts. There are over 850 line illustrations, identifying circuit components and troubleshooting techniques.