Nanotechnology is gaining high interest for both industries as well as for academic groups. The book contains several chapters in the following topics: (1). Nano material/fabrication: This field deals with innovative synthesis methods and in the preparation of various forms of nano-scale materials and fabrication techniques. It is the essential beginning of any nano-science application and the foundation of nanotechnology. (2). Nano biophotonics: One of the most exciting areas of nanotechnology is nano-biophotonics, which promises to incorporate photonics techniques to deal with bio related tasks. Those chapters focus on one of modern medicine's greatest challenges e.g. developing new and innovative approaches to treat and to detect cancer. (3). Nano photonics and nano-plasmonics: An exciting field dealing with the guiding of light through nanometric structures and its interaction with metallic and dielectric boundaries. (4). Nano electronics: Deals with the recently evolving challenges in microelectronic circuitry caused due to the constant decreasing of the dimensions of the various components.