In the 1980s, China established its first systems of environmental management collectively known as the three magic weapons: environmental impact assessment, pollutant discharge fees, and the three synchronizations. The authors explore the successes and failures of these systems through actual investigation of individual factories. They also examine the key agencies that implement environmental policy and their responsibilities to both leaders of local government and China's National Environmental Protection Agency. Their findings provide intriguing insights into the broader issues of environmental goals and priorities in developing countries, and the roles of both government agencies and entrepreneurs in policy implementation.
About the Author:
Barbara J. Sinkule conducted research on environmental policy implementation in China through Stanford University's Environmental and Water Studies Program and has been involved in China-related work since 1983. Currently, she is a technical staff member in the Environmental Science and Waste Technology Group of the Chemical Science and Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and works on a variety of waste management projects concerning hazardous and radioactive waste.
Leonard Ortolano is UPS Foundation Professor of Civil Engineering and Director of the Program on Urban Studies at Stanford University. His research on policy implementation in China began in 1987 when the Chinese government invited him there to give lectures on environmental planning and management. At Stanford University, he directs PhD studies in environmental planning within the Civil Engineering Department's Environmental and Water Studies Program.